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Sunday, April 26, 2009

Do the emotional states of pregnant women affect neonatal behaviour?

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Early Human Development
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doi:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2008.05.002
Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved.
Do the emotional states of pregnant women affect neonatal behaviour?

Carmen Hernández-Martíneza, , Victoria Arijab, , Albert Balaguerc, , Pere Cavalléd, and Josefa Canalsa, ,

aDepartment of Psychology, Rovira i Virgili University, Ctra. Valls S/N, 43007 Tarragona, Spain bUnit of Preventive Medicine, Rovira i Virgili University, C/ Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Spain cUnit of Pediatrics, Sant Joan University Hospital, Rovira i Virgili University, C/ Sant Joan S/N, 43201 Reus, Spain dUnit of Obstetrics and gynaecology, Sant Joan University Hospital, Rovira i Virgili University, C/ Sant Joan S/N, 43201 Reus, Spain

Received 30 January 2008; revised 28 April 2008; accepted 8 May 2008. Available online 20 June 2008.




References and further reading may be available for this article. To view references and further reading you must purchase this article.


Abstract
The emotional states of pregnant women affect the course of their pregnancies, their deliveries and the behaviour and development of their infants. The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of positive and negative maternal emotional states on neonatal behaviour at 2–3 days after birth. A sample of 163 healthy full-term newborns was evaluated using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Maternal anxiety, perceived stress, and emotional stability during pregnancy were evaluated in the immediate postpartum period with the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale. Moderate levels of anxiety during pregnancy alter infant orientation and self-regulation. These aspects of infant behaviour could lead to later attachment, behavioural and developmental problems. Maternal emotional stability during pregnancy improves infant self-regulation and several aspects of infant behaviour that may predispose them to better interactions with their parents.

Keywords: STAI; PSS; NBAS; Neonatal behaviour; Emotional states; Pregnancy

Article Outline
1. Introduction
2. Material and methods
2.1. Participants
2.2. Instruments
2.3. Procedure
2.4. Statistical analyses
3. Results
3.1. Descriptive data of anxiety, stress and neonatal behaviour scores
3.2. Differences in neonatal behaviour between high anxiety and low anxiety group
3.3. Prediction of neonatal behaviour by anxiety variables
4. Discussion
Acknowledgements
References
Table 1.

Descriptive statistics of emotional variables



STAI: State Trait Anxiety Inventory.

PSS: Perceived Stress Scale.


View Within Article


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Table 2.

Descriptive characteristics of the NBAS


a Supplementary items.

View Within Article


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Table 3.

Significant relationship between NBAS and STAI scores


a Supplementary item.

View Within Article


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Table 4.

Significant regression models for predicting NBAS scores by Trait anxiety



Adjustment variables: Type of feeding (1: breastfeeding; 2: artificial feeding), weeks of gestation, infant weight (kg), gender (1: boy; 2: girl), infant age (hours), prenatal smoking and prenatal alcohol use (1: Yes; 2: No), type of delivery (1: normal, 2: difficult).

a Supplementary items.

View Within Article


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Table 5.

Significant regression models for predicting NBAS scores by emotional stability



Adjustment variables: Type of feeding (1:breastfeeding; 2:artificial feeding). Weeks of gestation. Infant birth weight (kg). Gender (1: boy; 2:girl). Infant age (hours). Prenatal smoking and prenatal alcohol use (1:Yes; 2:No). Type of delivery (1:normal; difficult).

a Supplementary items.

View Within Article


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Early Human Development
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